The Largest and Smallest Penguins in the World

February 2, 2018 by Cheyenne Buckingham

Small and large penguins, while different in stature and weight, all seem to roam about in the same fashion — they waddle with their heads held high. There are 17 different penguin species in the world, with heights ranging from just over 1 foot to 4 feet.

24/7 Wall St. reviewed research compiled by Penguins-World, an online resource that houses a wealth of information on the biological characteristics of all penguin species. Using Penguins-World data, we ranked each of the 17 species by weight, from smallest to largest.

With the exception of the Galapagos penguin, all of the species inhabit coastlines and islands below the equator. The Galapagos penguin lives in a warmer environment in comparison with the other species, usually with temperatures between 59 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit. The Emperor penguin, on the other hand, lives in the most frigid habitat of all, withstanding temperatures of minus 40 to minus 76 degrees.

The Galapagos and Emperor penguins could not have a more different genetic makeup. The Galapagos penguin weighs a puny 4 to 6 pounds, whereas the Emperor’s weight is that of a prepubescent child, between 55 and 84 pounds. Not only is the Emperor penguin covered in a thick layer of waterproof feathers, but also it carries a glut of body fat that enables its body to tolerate the harsh climatic conditions.

Click here to see the largest and smallest penguins.

The population of penguins has been on the decline in the past several years due to multiple factors including pollution, habitat destruction by humans, and, most notably, global warming. Antarctic penguins such as the Adélie and Emperor may especially face further decline in their populations by the end of the century due to climate change.

The Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature has grouped all penguin species into four groups based on risk of extinction. The IUCN determines a species’ risk based on different criteria, including current preservation, population size, and severity of the threats posed, among others. Five penguin species are in danger of extinction and another five are classified as vulnerable.

To identify the largest and smallest penguin species, 24/7 Wall St. reviewed Penguins-World, an online resource about the biological characteristics of all penguin species. The rank is based on the penguin species’ upper weight limit. This list includes 17 penguin species, although some experts classify 18 groups. Scientists disagree about whether the Northern Rockhopper penguin is a subspecies of the Southern Rockhopper or merely a variation of the same species. We only included the Southern Rockhopper penguin on this list.

Source: tiger_barb / iStock

17. Little Blue penguin
> Weight: 1.75-3 lbs.
> Height: 13-15 inches
> Habitat: New Zealand, Australia, Tasmania
> Life expectancy in wild: 6-20 years
> Threat level: Low

Source: :jmmf / iStock

16. Galapagos penguin
> Weight: 3.75-5.75 lbs.
> Height: 19-21 inches
> Habitat: Galapagos Islands
> Life expectancy in wild: 9.5 years
> Threat level: Endangered

Source: USO / iStock

15. African penguin
> Weight: 5.25-9 lbs.
> Height: 24-27 inches
> Habitat: Namibia and South Africa
> Life expectancy in wild: 10-12 years
> Threat level: Endangered

Source: lin padgham / Wikimedia Commons

14. Snares penguin
> Weight: 5.75-9.5 lbs.
> Height: 20-22 inches
> Habitat: Snares Islands in New Zealand
> Life expectancy in wild: 11 years
> Threat level: Vulnerable

Source: dani3315 / iStock

13. Southern Rockhopper penguin
> Weight: 5-10 lbs.
> Height: 19-22 inches
> Habitat: Islands north of Antarctica, from Chile to New Zealand
> Life expectancy in wild: 10-15 years
> Threat level: Vulnerable

Source: cmfotoworks / iStock

12. Fiordland penguin
> Weight: 5.5-10.75 lbs.
> Height: 21-23 inches
> Habitat: South Island of New Zealand, and Stewart and Solander Islands
> Life expectancy in wild: N/A
> Threat level: Vulnerable

Source: burroblando / iStock

11. Chinstrap penguin
> Weight: 7.5-11 lbs.
> Height: 26-29 inches
> Habitat: Sandwich, South Shetland, and South Orkney Islands
> Life expectancy in wild: 12 years
> Threat level: Low

Source: vladsilver / iStock

10. Adélie penguin
> Weight: 8.5-11.75 lbs.
> Height: 24-27 inches
> Habitat: Antarctica
> Life expectancy in wild: 10 years
> Threat level: Low

Source: faber1893 / iStock

9. Humboldt penguin
> Weight: 7.75-13 lbs.
> Height: 24-26 inches
> Habitat: Chile and Peru
> Life expectancy in wild: 10-12 years
> Threat level: Vulnerable

Source: Jeremy Richards / iStock

8. Macaroni penguin
> Weight: 8-14 lbs.
> Height: 24-27 inches
> Habitat: South Georgia, Kerguelen, and Heard Islands
> Life expectancy in wild: 12 years
> Threat level: Vulnerable

Source: Ryan Carter / YouTube

7. Erect-crested penguin
> Weight: 6.5-14 lbs.
> Height: 22-25 inches
> Habitat: New Zealand and the Antipodes and Bounty Islands
> Life expectancy in wild: 10 years
> Threat level: Endangered

Source: fieldwork / iStock

6. Gentoo penguin
> Weight: 10.25-14.25 lbs.
> Height: 28-31 inches
> Habitat: South Georgia, South Sandwich, and Falkland Islands
> Life expectancy in wild: 10-15 years
> Threat level: Low

Source: Sergdid / iStock

5. Magellanic penguin
> Weight: 8.25-14.25 lbs.
> Height: 24-26 inches
> Habitat: Argentina and Chile
> Life expectancy in wild: 10 years
> Threat level: Near threatened

Source: M. Murphy / Wikipedia

4. Royal penguin
> Weight: 9-18 lbs.
> Height: 25-27 inches
> Habitat: Macquarie, Bishop, and Clerk Islands in Australia
> Life expectancy in wild: 12 years
> Threat level: Near threatened

Source: Todd Backman Photography / iStock

3. Yellow-Eyed penguin
> Weight: 9.54-18.75 lbs.
> Height: 24-29 inches
> Habitat: Campbell, Auckland, and Stewart Islands
> Life expectancy in wild: 9-10 years
> Threat level: Endangered

Source: burroblando / iStock

2. King penguin
> Weight: 26.5-35.25 lbs.
> Height: 31-35 inches
> Habitat: Subantarctic islands, southern Chile, and Argentina
> Life expectancy in wild: 20 years
> Threat level: Low

Source: Mario_Hoppmann / iStock

1. Emperor penguin
> Weight: 55-84 lbs.
> Height: 44-48 inches
> Habitat: Antarctica
> Life expectancy in wild: 20 years
> Threat level: Near threatened