46. Deng Xiaoping
> Nation/Territory: China
> Title: Paramount leader
> Time in power/Reign: 1978-1989
Deng Xiaoping became the most powerful man in the world’s most populous nation following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. Deng was a pragmatic leader who shifted away from his predecessor’s orthodox communist ideology by advocating for market reforms, decentralized planning, and more flexibility in planning goals. These policy changes contributed to higher living standards in China and put the nation on a course to becoming the world’s second largest economy.
47. Margaret Thatcher
> Nation/Territory: United Kingdom
> Title: Prime Minister
> Time in power/Reign: 1979-1990
Margaret Thatcher became Great Britain’s first female prime minister in 1979, serving as PM for three terms. Her strongly held free market beliefs put her at odds with unions, and she championed the deregulation of financial markets. Her brief and successful war to regain the Falkland Islands in 1982 from Argentina restored British pride and raised her popularity among the British people. Thatcher was also a staunch Cold War ally of the United States who forged a special relationship with American President Ronald Reagan.
48. Ronald Reagan
> Nation/Territory: United States
> Title: President
> Time in power/Reign: 1981-1989
Former actor Ronald Reagan won the presidency in 1980 on a platform of smaller government and taking a peace-through-strength approach toward the Soviet Union. After surviving an assassination attempt, Reagan succeeded in passing a plan to stimulate the economy by cutting taxes and bolster defense spending. Even as defense expenditures rose, Reagan negotiated treaties with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev that limited certain classes of nuclear missiles.
49. Vladimir Putin
> Nation/Territory: Russia
> Title: President
> Time in power/Reign: 2000-2008, 2012-present
Vladimir Putin, who has been president of Russia for all but four years since 2000, has been attempting to restore Russian military and political influence. He appears to be on a path to extend his time in office. In early March, the Russian Duma, the nation’s lower house of parliament, backed a constitutional amendment that would allow the former KGB officer to run for two more six-year presidential terms. The current Russian constitution requires the president to step down in 2024 when Putin’s second presidential term ends.
50. Angela Merkel
> Nation/Territory: Germany
> Title: Chancellor
> Time in power/Reign: 2005-present
Angela Merkel, Germany’s first female leader, has served as chancellor of Germany since 2005. Her fourth and final term as chancellor will end in 2021. Merkel has been called “the de facto leader of the European Union” and received kudos for her handling of the European financial crisis, showing political courage in advocating for fiscal austerity measures and unpopular budget reductions. Domestically, Merkel is also credited with transitioning the country to alternative energy sources and introducing a minimum wage.