> Sample breakfast dish: Fava bean soup
A familiar breakfast dish, especially in the colder months, bessara is a dense soup made with dried fava beans, garlic, olive oil, and cumin. Instead of eating it with a spoon, Moroccans sometimes scoop it up with a piece of bread, as though it were a liquid dip.
> Sample breakfast dish: Spicy chickpea soup
Tunisians sometimes turn to the soup pot, too, for their morning repast. Lablabi is a hearty, spicy soup made from dried chickpeas (garbanzos), onions, garlic, olive oil, cumin, and the vivid Tunisian hot sauce called harissa. A poached egg is often added.
> Sample breakfast dish: Barley porridge with butter and spices
Genfo is an Ethiopian breakfast favorite. It’s a thick barley-flour porridge served with a well in the center into which is poured clarified butter and the spice mixture called berbere, whose ingredients include chiles, garlic, ginger, fenugreek, and several herbs and spices unique to Ethiopia and vicinity.
> Sample breakfast dish: Black-eyed pea fritters and fermented pudding
A typical weekend breakfast in Nigeria might include akara and akamu. The former are fritters made with puréed black-eyed peas; the latter, also called ogi or pap, is a semi-solid, sourish cake or solidified porridge made with fermented corn flour.
> Sample breakfast dish: Spicy black-eyed pea sandwich
A common street food in Senegal, ndambe is a spicy stew of black-eyed peas and meat, slathered onto a split baguette.