Special Report

States With the Most Hate Groups

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7. Virginia
> Hate groups in 2020: 3.84 per million people (total: 33)
> Pct. pop. identifying as white: 61.1% (16th lowest)
> Pct. pop. foreign born: 12.7% (15th highest)
> Median household income: $76,456 (10th highest)
> Largest hate group headquartered in state: Wolves of Vinland

Among the 33 hate groups active in Virginia in 2020, the most frequently represented ideology was white nationalism — those who believe “white identity should be the organizing principle” for Western countries, per the SPLC. White nationalists also frequently advocate for policies that would ensure white people make up the majority of an area.

The number of active hate groups nationwide declined from over 1,000 in 2011 to 838 in 2020. Yet in Virginia, the number of such groups declined by just one over that time — from 34 to 33. The state’s rank by number of hate groups per capita rose from 17th in 2011 to seventh in 2020.

Source: Wikimedia Commons

6. Alabama
> Hate groups in 2020: 4.06 per million people (total: 20)
> Pct. pop. identifying as white: 65.1% (21st lowest)
> Pct. pop. foreign born: 3.6% (5th lowest)
> Median household income: $51,734 (5th lowest)
> Largest hate group headquartered in state: League of the South

Alabama is one of just six states in which there are more than 4 hate groups per million residents. Of the 20 hate groups in the state, six are neo-Confederate, which are white nationalist groups that have a “strong belief in the validity of the failed doctrines of nullification and secession” from the antebellum South, according to SPLC.

Like many other states on this list, there are relatively few foreign-born residents of Alabama. Just 3.6% of people living in the state were born outside the U.S. Nationwide, the share of foreign-born residents is 13.7%.

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5. New Hampshire
> Hate groups in 2020: 4.39 per million people (total: 6)
> Pct. pop. identifying as white: 89.7% (4th highest)
> Pct. pop. foreign born: 6.4% (22nd lowest)
> Median household income: $77,933 (8th highest)
> Largest hate group headquartered in state: Slaves of the Immaculate Heart of Mary

New Hampshire is the only New England state to appear on this list, with 4.4 hate groups per million residents. In fact, this is more than double the number of hate groups per capita of any other New England state.

New Hampshire is home to six hate groups — two neo-Nazi groups, two anti-Muslim groups, white nationalist group Patriot Front, and anti-Semitic group Slaves of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. This organization, the largest hate group in the state, practices radical traditional catholicism — an ideology rejected by the Vatican which holds that Jews are “the perpetual enemy of Christ” and claims that some recent popes have been illegitimate.

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4. Arkansas
> Hate groups in 2020: 4.62 per million people (total: 14)
> Pct. pop. identifying as white: 72.0% (24th highest)
> Pct. pop. foreign born: 5.1% (14th lowest)
> Median household income: $48,952 (3rd lowest)
> Largest hate group headquartered in state: Shieldwall Network

With 14 active hate groups in the state as of 2020, Arkansas ranks fourth in the nation in the concentration of hate groups, with 4.62 such groups per million residents. A decade earlier, nearly twice as many hate groups were active in the state.

The largest hate group headquartered in the state is the Shieldwall Network, a white nationalist group that “promotes racist and anti-Semitic” ideology and aims to “build a white ethno-state,” according to the Anti-Defamation League. Arkansas also has a KKK chapter, a neo-Nazi group, a neo-Confederate group, and a racist skinhead group.

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3. Nebraska
> Hate groups in 2020: 4.65 per million people (total: 9)
> Pct. pop. identifying as white: 78.4% (15th highest)
> Pct. pop. foreign born: 7.4% (25th highest)
> Median household income: $63,229 (25th highest)
> Largest hate group headquartered in state: Third Reich Books

Nebraska has the third highest number of hate groups per capita among U.S. states, as the Midwestern state of less than 2 million people had nine active hate groups as of 2020, according to the SPLC.

Nebraska is one of just three states in which the most commonly represented hate ideology is neo-Nazi. The state is home to Third Reich Books, which reprints writings from Adolf Hitler and other Nazi figures, as well as the neo-Nazi group National Socialist German Workers Party.