> Country: Madagascar
> Years in charge: 1828-1861
Ranavalona was known as the “Mad Queen of Madagascar” and “Ranavalona the Cruel.” She is said to have been the most ruthless queen in history. During her reign the country’s population was reduced by a half.
> Country: Belgium
> Years in charge: 1865-1909
King Leopold II of Belgium ruled the Congo Free State as a personal possession rather than as a colony. The population was reduced by a half due to executions, illness, and malnutrition during his reign.
Mehmet Talat Pasha
> Country: Ottoman Empire
> Years in charge: 1913-1918
Mehmet Talat Pasha has been described as the principal architect of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. He was assassinated by an Armenian while living in exile in Germany in 1921.
> Country: Italy
> Years in charge: 1922-1943
Benito Mussolini was the dictator who allied Italy with Adolf Hitler’s Germany, leading it to disaster and defeat in World War II.
> Country: Soviet Union
> Years in charge: 1922-1953
Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union through terror for three decades. In that time tens of millions of his own people died due to purges, famine, and war.
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