Hawaii is a state in the Western United States with a population of 1,422,029 and land area of 6,423 square miles. It ranks as the 11th smallest state by population and the 4th smallest state by area.
Race and Ethnicity
According to the most recent estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, 22.10% of state residents identify as white, 1.70% as Black or African American, 0.10% as American Indian or Alaska Native, 36.80% as Asian, 9.30% as Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 10.40% as Hispanic or Latino, and 19.50% as some other race or combination of races.
Nationally, some 61.1% of Americans identify as white, 12.3% as Black or African American, 0.7% as American Indian or Alaska Native, 5.4% as Asian, 0.2% as Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 17.8% as Hispanic or Latino, and 2.6% as some other race or combination of races.
Census respondents are also asked to report ancestry. Some of the most commonly reported ancestries in Hawaii include German, Irish, English, Portuguese, and Italian. Measured by location quotient -- comparing the state share to the national share -- some of the most highly concentrated ancestries in Hawaii are Portuguese, New Zealander, and Estonian.
Native and foreign-born population
An estimated 81.70% of Hawaii residents are native-born, meaning they were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area, or abroad to a U.S. citizen.
Of the 18.30% of the population that is foreign-born, 57.90% have become naturalized U.S. citizens. Nationwide, 86.5% of Americans are native-born. And of the 13.5% of Americans who are foreign-born, 48.8% have become naturalized U.S. citizens.
The population of Hawaii is about as old as the United States as a whole. The median age in the state is 38.9 years old, 1.0 years more than the national median age of 37.9 years. An estimated 17.30% of the population is 65 years and over, compared to 15.2% of the U.S. population.
Family and household composition
Family and household composition also varies heavily across the United States. In Hawaii, 51.90% of households are occupied by married-couple families, compared to the 48.3% national figure. Some 5.70% of households are occupied by single male householders, 12.20% by single female householders, and 30.10% by non-family occupants. Nationwide, 4.9% of households are occupied by single male householders, 12.6% by single female householders, and 34.3% by non-family occupants. An estimated 58.30% of heads of household own their homes, compared to the national homeownership rate of 63.8%.
As is the case across the United States, English is the most commonly spoken language in Hawaii. Of the 1,331,600 people aged 5 and up living in Hawaii, 87.9% speak English exclusively, or, if they are multilingual, speak English very well. Though English is the predominantly spoken language in the state, its usage is not as common as it is nationwide, where an average of 91.5% of the 5 and older population only speaks English, or speak it very well.
Spanish is the second most commonly spoken language in the United States. In Hawaii, 2.2% of the population aged 5 and older speaks Spanish, the 8th smallest share among all states. Nationwide, 13.3% of all Americans in the same age group speak Spanish.
Residents of Hawaii are more likely to be married than the typical American. Of the 1.2 million Hawaii residents aged 15 and older, 49.9% are currently married, compared to 48.1% of Americans nationwide in the same age group. Divorce, meanwhile, is less common in the state than it is nationwide. In Hawaii, 9.3% of the 15 and older population is divorced, compared to the 10.8% share of the same age group across the U.S. as a whole.
An estimated 33.2% of Hawaii residents 15 and older have never married, compared to one-third of Americans in the same age group.
In Hawaii, 9.8% of the 18 and over population are veterans -- above the 7.5% of adult civilians who have served in the military nationwide. Compared to other states, Hawaii is home to the 6th largest share of military veterans.
As is the case nationwide, the largest share of veterans living in the state served in the Vietnam era. Of Hawaii’s 105,600 resident veterans, 4.2% served in World War II, 33.4% served in the Vietnam War, 21.1% served in the period between the beginning of the Gulf War and 2001, and 30.4% served since the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. An additional 7,500 men and women served during the Korean War.
In Hawaii, adults are more likely to have a high school education than the typical American adult, and are also more likely to have a four-year college education. Among Hawaii residents 25 and older, 91.8% have a high school diploma or equivalent, and 32.5% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 87.7% and 31.5% of adults nationwide, respectively.
Though it is not always the case, incomes tend to rise with educational attainment rates across broad populations -- and Hawaii is no exception. With a higher than average bachelor’s degree attainment rate, the state also has a higher than average median income. The typical household in Hawaii earns $78,084 a year, about $17,800 more than the national median household income of $60,293.
Additionally, Hawaii has a higher than average concentration of wealthy residents. An estimated 9.3% of households in the state earn $200,000 or more annually, compared to 7.0% of households nationwide.
With the higher than average median household income, serious financial hardship is less common in the state than it is nationwide. The poverty rate in Hawaii stands at 9.9%, while the national poverty rate is 14.1%.
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