All U.S. citizens
> Total group size: 300.3 million people
> Group members living below the poverty line: 34.0 million people
> Group poverty rate: 11.3%
One of the strongest predictors of poverty in the United States is citizenship. U.S. citizens — both foreign and native born — have access to a far wider range of employment opportunities than non-citizens. The poverty rate among American citizens is 11.3%, below the 11.8% poverty rate among everyone living in the United States.
Foreign-born, naturalized citizen
> Total group size: 22.3 million people
> Group members living below the poverty line: 2.2 million people
> Group poverty rate: 9.9%
Overall, those who were born outside of the United States are slightly more likely to live in poverty than those born in the country. The one exception, however, is those who were born abroad and have naturalized as U.S. citizens. Of the 22.3 million Americans who fit that description, 9.9% live in poverty compared to the 11.4% poverty rate among native-born citizens. The requirements to become a naturalized citizen are extensive and may naturally favor those who are more likely to be financially secure.
Foreign-born, not a citizen
> Total group size: 23.5 million people
> Group members living below the poverty line: 4.1 million people
> Group poverty rate: 17.5%
The poverty rate among those born in a different country and are not U.S. citizens is a staggering 17.5%. Non-U.S. citizens living in the country are often forced to live and work in the shadows, and doing so often means working at very low paying jobs.