Special Report

America's Most and Least Popular Senators

Photo by Scott Eisen / Getty Images

Senators represent the interests of the residents of their home state on Capitol Hill by crafting and voting on new laws and by approving or rejecting cabinet and judicial nominations made by the president. Though not listed among their official duties, remaining popular is also an important part of their job.  

Unlike U.S. presidents and most state governors, senators do not have term limits. As a result, they can keep their job as long as they remain popular and in good health. Throughout history, dozens of senators have served for multiple decades. Nine senators, including one sitting senator, Patrick Leahy of Vermont, have served for over 40 years. 

24/7 Wall St. reviewed public opinion data from research company Morning Consult to rank all 100 U.S. senators from most to least popular. Senator approval ratings are based on survey data collected during the third quarter of 2019 and range from 33% to 65%.

Each state has two senators — and even though both are representing the interests of the same people, perceptions of how effective they are can vary considerably. For example, the two senators from Vermont — independent Bernie Sanders and Democrat Patrick Leahy — have the two highest approval ratings in the country, at 65% and 63%, respectively. In contrast, Angus King, an independent from Maine, is one of the most popular senators with a 57% approval rating. Meanwhile, Maine’s other senator, Republican Susan Collins, is one of the least popular, with an approval rating of just 43%. 

One factor that seems to be largely affecting senators’ approval rating is economic conditions — even though the state of the economy is often out of the control of elected officials. Of the 20 Senators with approval ratings of at least 50%, 16 are from states where the annual unemployment rate is below the 3.9% national average. Meanwhile, only six of the 20 least popular senators are from states with lower than average unemployment. These are the states where it is hardest to find full-time work.

Aside from economic reasons, dissatisfaction with a senator can have any number of other causes — including a personal scandal or public gaffe. But a major scandal or loss of public approval doesn’t necessarily mean a senator will lose their job. In areas where large swaths of eligible voters do not turn out on election day, controversial and even unpopular leaders can still win elections. In 24 states, voter participation rates were below 50% in the November 2018 midterm elections. Here is a list of the 50 states ranked by voter turnout.

Click here to see America’s most and least popular senators
Click here to read our methodology

1. Sen. Bernie Sanders (I) of Vermont
> Popularity: 65% approve; 30% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in VT: 54.2% (10th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.7% (5th lowest)

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2. Sen. Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont
> Popularity: 63% approve; 24% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1975
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in VT: 54.2% (10th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.7% (5th lowest)

3. Sen. John Barrasso (R) of Wyoming
> Popularity: 59% approve; 26% disapprove
> Assumed office: 6/25/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WY: 51.2% (22nd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

4. Sen. Angus King (I) of Maine
> Popularity: 57% approve; 30% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in ME: 64.5% (the highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

5. Sen. John Hoeven (R) of North Dakota
> Popularity: 56% approve; 22% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in ND: 59.8% (4th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.6% (4th lowest)

6. Sen. Mike Enzi (R) of Wyoming
> Popularity: 56% approve; 23% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1997
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WY: 51.2% (22nd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

7. Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D) of Minnesota
> Popularity: 55% approve; 32% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MN: 59.5% (5th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.9% (8th lowest)

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8. Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D) of New Hampshire
> Popularity: 54% approve; 34% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2009
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NH: 53.3% (16th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.5% (3rd lowest)

9. Sen. John Thune (R) of South Dakota
> Popularity: 54% approve; 34% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2005
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in SD: 51.0% (24th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3% (11th lowest)

10. Sen. Chris Coons (D) of Delaware
> Popularity: 52% approve; 27% disapprove
> Assumed office: 11/15/2010
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in DE: 48.8% (22nd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.8% (25th lowest)

11. Sen. Mitt Romney (R) of Utah
> Popularity: 52% approve; 33% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in UT: 54.0% (11th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.1% (12th lowest)

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12. Sen. Mike Rounds (R) of South Dakota
> Popularity: 52% approve; 34% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in SD: 51.0% (24th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3% (11th lowest)

13. Sen. Ed Markey (D) of Massachusetts
> Popularity: 51% approve; 25% disapprove
> Assumed office: 7/16/2013
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MA: 50.0% (25th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.3% (15th lowest)

14. Sen. Brian E. Schatz (D) of Hawaii
> Popularity: 51% approve; 28% disapprove
> Assumed office: 12/27/2012
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in HI: 40.4% (the lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.4% (the lowest)

15. Sen. Maggie Hassan (D) of New Hampshire
> Popularity: 51% approve; 33% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2017
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NH: 53.3% (16th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.5% (3rd lowest)

16. Sen. Tim Scott (R) of South Carolina
> Popularity: 50% approve; 25% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in SC: 46.9% (10th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

17. Sen. Jack Reed (D) of Rhode Island
> Popularity: 50% approve; 27% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1997
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in RI: 48.7% (20th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

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18. Sen. Tom Carper (D) of Delaware
> Popularity: 50% approve; 28% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2001
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in DE: 48.8% (22nd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.8% (25th lowest)

19. Sen. Ben Sasse (R) of Nebraska
> Popularity: 50% approve; 32% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NE: 47.3% (14th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.8% (7th lowest)

20. Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D) of Rhode Island
> Popularity: 50% approve; 32% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in RI: 48.7% (20th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

21. Sen. Ben Cardin (D) of Maryland
> Popularity: 49% approve; 23% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MD: 49.7% (24th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

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22. Sen. John Boozman (R) of Arkansas
> Popularity: 49% approve; 27% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AR: 40.6% (2nd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.7% (24th lowest)

23. Sen. David Perdue (R) of Georgia
> Popularity: 49% approve; 27% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in GA: 52.0% (19th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

24. Sen. Maria Cantwell (D) of Washington
> Popularity: 49% approve; 27% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2001
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WA: 56.0% (9th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.5% (9th highest)

25. Sen. Mark Warner (D) of Virginia
> Popularity: 49% approve; 30% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2009
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in VA: 52.0% (19th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3% (11th lowest)

26. Sen. Lindsey Graham (R) of South Carolina
> Popularity: 49% approve; 35% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2003
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in SC: 46.9% (10th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

27. Sen. Ted Cruz (R) of Texas
> Popularity: 49% approve; 36% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in TX: 42.2% (3rd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

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28. Sen. Jon Tester (D) of Montana
> Popularity: 49% approve; 39% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MT: 63.0% (2nd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.7% (24th lowest)

29. Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D) of Massachusetts
> Popularity: 49% approve; 41% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MA: 50.0% (25th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.3% (15th lowest)

30. Sen. Ron Wyden (D) of Oregon
> Popularity: 48% approve; 27% disapprove
> Assumed office: 2/5/1996
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in OR: 58.2% (6th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.2% (13th highest)

31. Sen. Patty Murray (D) of Washington
> Popularity: 48% approve; 29% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1993
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WA: 56.0% (9th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.5% (9th highest)

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32. Sen. Mike Crapo (R) of Idaho
> Popularity: 48% approve; 30% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/1999
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in ID: 45.2% (8th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.8% (7th lowest)

33. Sen. Kevin Cramer (R) of North Dakota
> Popularity: 48% approve; 30% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in ND: 59.8% (4th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.6% (4th lowest)

34. Sen. Tom Cotton (R) of Arkansas
> Popularity: 48% approve; 32% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AR: 40.6% (2nd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.7% (24th lowest)

35. Sen. Christopher Murphy (D) of Connecticut
> Popularity: 48% approve; 35% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in CT: 48.3% (18th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

36. Sen. Chuck Schumer (D) of New York
> Popularity: 48% approve; 35% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/1999
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NY: 43.8% (7th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

37. Sen. Joe Manchin III (D) of West Virginia
> Popularity: 48% approve; 42% disapprove
> Assumed office: 11/15/2010
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WV: 43.4% (5th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 5.3% (2nd highest)

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38. Sen. Roger Wicker (R) of Mississippi
> Popularity: 47% approve; 28% disapprove
> Assumed office: 12/31/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MS: 53.8% (12th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.8% (5th highest)

39. Sen. Kyrsten Sinema (D) of Arizona
> Popularity: 47% approve; 29% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AZ: 52.2% (17th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.8% (5th highest)

40. Sen. Sherrod Brown (D) of Ohio
> Popularity: 47% approve; 30% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in OH: 51.1% (23rd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.6% (7th highest)

41. Sen. Steve Daines (R) of Montana
> Popularity: 47% approve; 31% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MT: 63.0% (2nd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.7% (24th lowest)

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42. Sen. Shelley Moore Capito (R) of West Virginia
> Popularity: 47% approve; 33% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WV: 43.4% (5th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 5.3% (2nd highest)

43. Sen. Marco Rubio (R) of Florida
> Popularity: 47% approve; 34% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in FL: 47.0% (11th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.6% (22nd lowest)

44. Sen. Rick Scott (R) of Florida
> Popularity: 47% approve; 36% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in FL: 47.0% (11th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.6% (22nd lowest)

45. Sen. Tammy Baldwin (D) of Wisconsin
> Popularity: 47% approve; 37% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WI: 62.6% (3rd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3% (11th lowest)

46. Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D) of Connecticut
> Popularity: 47% approve; 38% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in CT: 48.3% (18th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

47. Sen. Chris Van Hollen (D) of Maryland
> Popularity: 46% approve; 22% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2017
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MD: 49.7% (24th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

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48. Sen. John Neely Kennedy (R) of Louisiana
> Popularity: 46% approve; 26% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2017
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in LA: 47.9% (16th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.9% (3rd highest)

49. Sen. James Lankford (R) of Oklahoma
> Popularity: 46% approve; 27% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in OK: 47.1% (12th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

50. Sen. Jim Risch (R) of Idaho
> Popularity: 46% approve; 28% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2009
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in ID: 45.2% (8th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.8% (7th lowest)

51. Sen. Jim Inhofe (R) of Oklahoma
> Popularity: 46% approve; 29% disapprove
> Assumed office: 11/17/1994
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in OK: 47.1% (12th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

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52. Sen. Mike Lee (R) of Utah
> Popularity: 46% approve; 31% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in UT: 54.0% (11th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.1% (12th lowest)

53. Sen. Cindy Hyde-Smith (R) of Mississippi
> Popularity: 46% approve; 32% disapprove
> Assumed office: 4/9/2018
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MS: 53.8% (12th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.8% (5th highest)

54. Sen. Marsha Blackburn (R) of Tennessee
> Popularity: 46% approve; 32% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in TN: 47.8% (15th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.5% (21st lowest)

55. Sen. Tim Kaine (D) of Virginia
> Popularity: 46% approve; 34% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in VA: 52.0% (19th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3% (11th lowest)

56. Sen. Mazie K. Hirono (D) of Hawaii
> Popularity: 46% approve; 36% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in HI: 40.4% (the lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.4% (the lowest)

57. Sen. Cory Booker (D) of New Jersey
> Popularity: 46% approve; 36% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 10/31/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NJ: 48.3% (18th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

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58. Sen. Bill Cassidy (R) of Louisiana
> Popularity: 45% approve; 27% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in LA: 47.9% (16th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.9% (3rd highest)

59. Sen. Richard Shelby (R) of Alabama
> Popularity: 45% approve; 30% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1987
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AL: 48.8% (22nd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

60. Sen. Debbie Stabenow (D) of Michigan
> Popularity: 45% approve; 34% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2001
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MI: 57.7% (7th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

61. Sen. Johnny Isakson (R) of Georgia
> Popularity: 44% approve; 26% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2005
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in GA: 52.0% (19th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

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62. Sen. John Cornyn (R) of Texas
> Popularity: 44% approve; 26% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 12/2/2002
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in TX: 42.2% (3rd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

63. Sen. Mike Braun (R) of Indiana
> Popularity: 44% approve; 27% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in IN: 47.2% (13th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

64. Sen. Jeff Merkley (D) of Oregon
> Popularity: 44% approve; 28% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2009
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in OR: 58.2% (6th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.2% (13th highest)

65. Sen. Josh Hawley (R) of Missouri
> Popularity: 43% approve; 31% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MO: 53.7% (14th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.2% (13th lowest)

66. Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand (D) of New York
> Popularity: 43% approve; 31% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/27/2009
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NY: 43.8% (7th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

67. Sen. Bob Casey Jr. (D) of Pennsylvania
> Popularity: 43% approve; 31% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2007
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in PA: 52.1% (18th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.3% (10th highest)

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68. Sen. Lamar Alexander (R) of Tennessee
> Popularity: 43% approve; 31% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2003
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in TN: 47.8% (15th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.5% (21st lowest)

69. Sen. Martin Heinrich (D) of New Mexico
> Popularity: 43% approve; 34% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NM: 45.3% (9th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.9% (3rd highest)

70. Sen. Tom Udall (D) of New Mexico
> Popularity: 43% approve; 34% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2009
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NM: 45.3% (9th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.9% (3rd highest)

71. Sen. Kamala Harris (D) of California
> Popularity: 43% approve; 35% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2017
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in CA: 43.8% (7th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.2% (13th highest)

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72. Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D) of California
> Popularity: 43% approve; 38% disapprove
> Assumed office: 11/10/1992
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in CA: 43.8% (7th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.2% (13th highest)

73. Sen. Deb Fischer (R) of Nebraska
> Popularity: 43% approve; 40% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2013
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NE: 47.3% (14th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.8% (7th lowest)

74. Sen. Chuck Grassley (R) of Iowa
> Popularity: 43% approve; 41% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1981
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in IA: 56.2% (8th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.5% (3rd lowest)

75. Sen. Susan Collins (R) of Maine
> Popularity: 43% approve; 49% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1997
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in ME: 64.5% (the highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

76. Sen. Todd C. Young (R) of Indiana
> Popularity: 42% approve; 25% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2017
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in IN: 47.2% (13th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

77. Sen. Jerry Moran (R) of Kansas
> Popularity: 42% approve; 29% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in KS: 53.6% (15th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

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78. Sen. Tina Smith (D) of Minnesota
> Popularity: 42% approve; 29% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2018
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MN: 59.5% (5th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.9% (8th lowest)

79. Sen. Dan Sullivan (R) of Alaska
> Popularity: 42% approve; 31% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AK: 50.2% (25th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 6.6% (the highest)

80. Sen. Tammy Duckworth (D) of Illinois
> Popularity: 42% approve; 32% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2017
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in IL: 48.7% (20th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.3% (10th highest)

81. Sen. Catherine Cortez Masto (D) of Nevada
> Popularity: 41% approve; 30% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2017
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NV: 43.3% (4th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.6% (7th highest)

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82. Sen. Ronald Harold “Ron” Johnson (R) of Wisconsin
> Popularity: 41% approve; 32% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in WI: 62.6% (3rd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3% (11th lowest)

83. Sen. Doug Jones (D) of Alabama
> Popularity: 41% approve; 36% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2018
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AL: 48.8% (22nd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

84. Sen. Rob Portman (R) of Ohio
> Popularity: 40% approve; 32% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in OH: 51.1% (23rd highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.6% (7th highest)

85. Sen. Michael Bennet (D) of Colorado
> Popularity: 40% approve; 33% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/22/2009
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in CO: 53.8% (12th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.3% (15th lowest)

86. Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R) of Alaska
> Popularity: 40% approve; 39% disapprove
> Assumed office: 12/20/2002
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AK: 50.2% (25th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 6.6% (the highest)

87. Sen. Rand Paul (R) of Kentucky
> Popularity: 40% approve; 40% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in KY: 51.8% (21st highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.3% (10th highest)

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88. Sen. Jacky Rosen (D) of Nevada
> Popularity: 39% approve; 31% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2025
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NV: 43.3% (4th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.6% (7th highest)

89. Sen. Dick Durbin (D) of Illinois
> Popularity: 39% approve; 36% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/1997
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in IL: 48.7% (20th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.3% (10th highest)

90. Sen. Pat Toomey (R) of Pennsylvania
> Popularity: 39% approve; 36% disapprove (tied)
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in PA: 52.1% (18th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.3% (10th highest)

91. Sen. Martha McSally (R) of Arizona
> Popularity: 39% approve; 37% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2019
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in AZ: 52.2% (17th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.8% (5th highest)

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92. Sen. Roy Blunt (R) of Missouri
> Popularity: 39% approve; 38% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2011
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MO: 53.7% (14th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.2% (13th lowest)

93. Sen. Joni Ernst (R) of Iowa
> Popularity: 39% approve; 43% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in IA: 56.2% (8th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 2.5% (3rd lowest)

94. Sen. Pat Roberts (R) of Kansas
> Popularity: 38% approve; 36% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1997
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in KS: 53.6% (15th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.4% (20th lowest)

95. Sen. Richard Burr (R) of North Carolina
> Popularity: 37% approve; 34% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2005
> Current term ends: 2023
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NC: 49.3% (23rd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

96. Sen. Mitch McConnell (R) of Kentucky
> Popularity: 37% approve; 50% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/1985
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in KY: 51.8% (21st highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.3% (10th highest)

97. Sen. Gary Peters (D) of Michigan
> Popularity: 36% approve; 28% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in MI: 57.7% (7th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

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98. Sen. Cory Gardner (R) of Colorado
> Popularity: 36% approve; 39% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in CO: 53.8% (12th highest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.3% (15th lowest)

99. Sen. Bob Menendez (D) of New Jersey
> Popularity: 34% approve; 43% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/18/2006
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NJ: 48.3% (18th lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 4.1% (15th highest)

100. Sen. Thom Tillis (R) of North Carolina
> Popularity: 33% approve; 38% disapprove
> Assumed office: 1/3/2015
> Current term ends: 2021
> Nov. 2018 voter participation in NC: 49.3% (23rd lowest)
> 2018 state unemployment: 3.9% (21st highest)

Methodology

To identify America’s most (and least) popular senators, 24/7 Wall St. reviewed approval and disapproval ratings for all 100 U.S. senators from Morning Consult, a public opinion data research company. Senator approval ratings are current as of the third quarter of 2019. Senators were ranked based on approval ratings, and in the case of a tie, the senator with the lower disapproval rating was ranked higher.

We also considered voter turnout data for the November 2018 midterm elections as a proxy for civic engagement. Voter participation data came from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey.

To gauge economic conditions in a given state, we reviewed both the annual unemployment rate and the share of the state population living below the poverty line. The unemployment rate is for 2018 and came from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The poverty rate came from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2018 American Community Survey.

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